ECE 421 - Introduction to Antennas and Propagation

Description: Credit 3U/4G. Potential, antenna parameters, radiation from linear wires and loops, impedance, arrays, communication links and path loss, tropospheric propagation, fading and diversity. 

Prerequisite: ECE 225 and ECE 322

Recent Textbooks: John D. Kraus, Ronald J. Marhefka, Antennas, 3 rd edition, McGraw Hill, 2002, ISBN 0072321032

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 2005, ISBN: 0-471-66782-X




1. Introduction and review

Maxwell’s equations

Retarded potential

Radiation from elementary sources

Catalog of antennas

2. Antenna parameters

Pattern, Directivity, Gain, Efficiency, Beamwidth, Bandwidth, Polarization, Impedance, Noise temperature, Friis formula, path-loss, radar links, satellite links.

3. Theorems of antenna analysis

Reciprocity and duality

Image theory

4. Radiation from linear wire antennas

Near fields

Radiation characteristics and parameters of dipole and monopole antennas of various lengths

5. Antenna Impedance

Self and mutual impedance of dipoles via induced EMF method

6. Radiation from loop antennas:

Radiation characteristics of: small and large circular, rectangular and other polygonal loop antennas including effect of finite ground

7. Analysis of linear arrays

Array factor,

Pattern multiplication principle,

N-element uniform array,

Schelkunoff’s unit circle as a design aid,

Special arrays

8. Aperture antennas



9. Tropospheric propagation

10. Distributions and diversity principles

Delay spread, Doppler sprea